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  Histopathological changes in Kidney of rats

Figure 9:  A:  Kidney from Normal control Group 1 with normal renal tubules.
B: Kidney from Diabetic rat treated with water displaying altered glomerular morphology, inflammatory process in renal papilla and dilatation of tubules (arrow) group 2.
C: Kidney from Aqueous extract Group 3 with healing renal tubules.
D: Kidney from Alcoholic extract Group 4 with morphological alteration in renal tubules (Partial healing).
E: Kidney from Standard Group 5 with completely healed renal tubules.

In diabetic normal control rats, the kidney presen¬ted a typical histological structure with several morphological changes shown in Figure 9A. In the kidneys of the diabetic rats (Figure 9B), many pathological alterations were found: partial cellular lesion with aci-dophilic material in the glomerulus, concentric fibrosis with distortion of the tubular wall and enlargement of the tubular lumen, vacuolization of the cyto¬plasm of the tubular epithelium cells; atypical nuclei, and inflammatory processes in the interstitial spaces in renal papilla and pelvis regions. These alterations are typical of diabetic nephropathy20. The diabetic rats treated with M. oliefera extracts displayed no glomerular or tubular pathological alterations, although slight changes in morphology were seen.  Inflammatory processes were absent, but fibrotic scars were found at somewhere shown in Figure 9C and Figure 9D. These findings suggest that treat¬ment with M. oliefera may have an anti-inflammatory effect on the kidneys.

The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of MO roots in diabetic rats. Blood glucose level was lowered with both the extracts, when it was compared with diabetic control. Standard drug Glipizide also optimally reduced the blood glucose level against diabetic rats.
Both the extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) reduced the TC, LDL, TG, HDL/LDL, TC/LDL compared with diabetic control group. As far as HDL which is responsible having protective action on heart, was also increased with both the extracts compared with control. Bilirubin concentration was increased with both the extracts in diabetic rats compared with diabetic control group. As it was evident that diabetic control rats shown decrease in bilirubin concentration.
Further, the intention was towards establishing the toxicity studies especially on liver and kidney. From the study, it is now evident that aqueous extract of MO was highly effective comparative to alcoholic extract. Standard drug Glipizide shown better results compared with diabetic control without producing toxicity on liver and kidney. From the histopathological study, no doubt we can say that alcoholic exract was somewhat toxic on liver and kidney, whereas results of aqueous extract found to be better except slight alterations in the morphological structure in kidney.
The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity afforded may be due to the presence of active constituents like alkaloids moringine and moringinine. Regarding the toxicity studies, still there is needed to carry out further studies for both the extracts of MO roots.

In conclusion, alcoholic and aqueous extract of MO had shown antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats with reference to various parameters such as Body weight, Blood glucose, Serum cholesterol, Serum triglyceride, Serum HDL, Serum LDL, LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, Serum SGPT, Serum SGOT, Serum ALP, Serum bilirubin. So, in the present study, STZ was able to induce typical signs of diabetes, such as weight reduction, polyphagia, polydypsia, polyuria, hyperglycemia, reduced hepatic glycogen levels. Treatment of the STZ treated rats with M. oliefera extracts significantly reduced their glycemic levels, restored hepatic glycogen levels, and produced favorable histopathological results. Moreover, the decoction of M. oliefera had no diuretic effect in the control or diabetic groups, where diuresis is a common side effect of many teas and herbal infusions.



The authors are grateful to Management Trustee, Vidyabharti Trust for the financial support and encouragement in carrying out this project.

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